专业论文写作和论文发表机构,诚信为您服务!如有需求,请与我们联系,谢谢!
返回首页您现在的位置: 梦想论文发表网 > 法律论文 > 法学论文 > 文章内容

贿赂犯罪发展动向和完善立法

作者: fafa 来源: 未知 时间: 2016-01-01 阅读: 在线投稿
Abstract in the process of the historical process of China's 30 years of criminal punishment of bribery crime, for the need of the development of economy and the punishment of crime of bribery, bribery crime criminal legislation of our country is also in the continuous development and improvement, based on the analysis of development trend on the basis of the characteristic put forward some thinking.

论文关键词 贿赂 犯罪 立法完善
Keywords bribery crime legislation perfect

一、贿赂犯罪的涵义
One, the meaning of the crime of bribery

对于贿赂犯罪的涵义,不同的角度有着不同的解释。一般从传统意义的角度看,依据《刑法》中规定的受贿、行贿罪和对公司、企业人员的受贿与行贿罪等,除了包括比如调动工作、晋位升迁等一些非经济领域的贿赂犯罪,还包括一些经济领域内贿赂犯罪行为。同时,随着经济社会的快速发展,在多领域贿赂犯罪案件日益不断增多的情况下,其内涵从传统定义下逐渐分离出来并形成了自己的特色,单从经济领域角度来看,它主要以发生在经济活动领域中的贿赂事件为研究对象,排除了上述非经济领域内的贿赂犯罪。
For the crime of bribery and meaning, different points of view have a different interpretation. General from the traditional point of view, on the basis of "criminal law" in the provisions of the crime of bribery and bribery, to the company, the enterprise personnel's bribery and bribery, in addition to including such as transfers the work, Jin a bribe crime such as promotion of some non economic field, also includes the bribery crime areas of economic. At the same time, with the rapid economic and social development, in the case of multi field bribery crime is increasingly increasing continuously, its connotation from the traditional definition of separated and gradually formed its own characteristics, the single from the economic field angle, it mainly occurred in the economic activities in the field of bribery as the research object, the exclusion of bribes the non economic crimes in the field of.

二、贿赂犯罪的发展动向特点
The trend of the development of characteristic two, the crime of bribery

(一)热点部门较为集中
(a) the hot sector is relatively concentrated

随着社会转型发展,对于经济和公共权力的集中处成为行贿者重点进攻的地方,成为贿赂犯罪的高发区。如公安、海关、交通管理、税务、工商、土地规划等行政执法和司法部门;直接掌握计划、调配和审批权的管理部门;以及房地产、证券、期货、投资等领域。
With the transformation of the society development, for the concentrated economic and public power become the briber key offensive place, become the bribery crime in high incidence area. Such as public security, customs, traffic management, taxation, industry and commerce, land planning and other administrative law enforcement and judicial departments; directly control the planning, deployment and the power of examination and approval management department; and real estate, securities, futures and investment fields.

(二)行贿手段层出不穷
(two) bribery means endless

现今犯罪分子行贿的花样百出,且绞尽脑汁,如有陌生人、第三人在场送的不收;只收钱财不收物件;如借逢年过节、婚丧嫁娶之机送超出正常额度的压岁钱、礼金;以分红顾问费、劳务费、咨询费等名义行贿;办事后不马上收钱或收钱后不马上办事;在职时办事直到离职后再收;送住房、汽车等耐用品的长期使用权;提供免费出国旅游等;公共场合表现出勤俭节约,私底下大肆敛财;一人从政,家人跟着经商;购买股票债券转移行贿所得财物视线;权色交易等等,从面体现出犯罪分子较强本身自我保护和反侦查能力。


Nowadays criminal bribery pattern, and brains, if strangers, third people were sent to not receive money money; only do not collect objects; such as borrow festivals, weddings and funerals machine sent beyond the normal amount of lucky money, gifts; to pay dividends consultancy fees, service charges, fees and other nominal bribery act immediately after; not money or money not immediately after service; service until after leaving again received in-service; long-term right to use to send the housing and other durable goods; to provide free travel abroad; public exhibit thrift, privately wantonly money; a man in politics, the family business to buy stocks and bonds followed; transfer from the property right view of bribery; color transaction and so on, from the surface to reflect strong itself criminals self protection and anti investigation ability.

(三)职务犯罪串案窝案
(three) the duty crime string case fossa case

受贿者为完成行贿者所托之事,在职务范围内上下打点,从而形成利益共享的一张受贿网络,这导致串案窝案较多,形成大官拿大利,小官拿小利,你捞我也捞的恶劣情况,也带坏了一个部门、一个单位的工作作风。
The support for the completion of the bribee briber things, RBI in the duty range, thus forming a bribery benefit sharing network, which leads to string case fossa case form more, magnifico Nadali, small officer with a small profit, you get bad situation I have fish, also takes a department, a unit of work style.

(四)贿赂行为跨越区域
(four) bribery behavior across the region

为躲避追查,贿赂犯罪有时表现出贿赂地点在不同的城市、行贿之人为境外人士、受贿所得转移境外或犯罪后潜逃境外,从而使得一个案子将涉及数省、数地区、境外,使得查处难度增大。
To avoid tracing, bribery crime sometimes show bribery locations in different cities, bribery, bribery income transfers are foreigners overseas or criminal fled after the outside, so that a case will involve a number of province, area, number of overseas, investigate and deal with difficult to make.

(五)钱权诱惑无法控制
(five) the right money temptation cannot control

金钱与权力即是行贿者的有利手段也是其所追求的目标,由于钱权的巨大惑,使得行贿目的本身不仅仅限于解决问题,而捞钱、买权的目的也日益明显,使得原一次或偶然的行贿发展成为连续必然的行贿。
Money and power is advantageous means the briber is the pursuit of the goal, because of the great confusion of money power, makes the bribery objective itself is not limited to solve the problem, but to make money, buy the right to also become more and more obvious, which makes the primary or bribery development chance to bribe as continuous inevitable.

(六)公贿现象逐渐呈现
(six) Fair bribe phenomenon gradually

随着国有企业成为市场经济竞争的主体以及地方政府领导人发展经济的政绩意识增强,为实现经济发展业绩的快速增长目标,一些国有企业甚至地方政府及国家机关也开始加入行贿者的行列之中,出现了“公贿”现象。
Along with the state-owned enterprises become the main body of market economy competition and enhance the development of local government leaders and economic achievements of consciousness, to achieve economic development performance of the rapid growth targets, some state - owned enterprises and local government and state agencies also began to join the ranks of bribery, the emergence of the "fair bribe" phenomenon.


Reflections on the three, bribery crime legislation, construction

改革开放30多年以来,我国也一直将贿赂犯罪作为重点打击内容之一,也取得了明显的效果。虽然国家不断加大惩治贿赂犯罪的力度,但与一些反腐败刑事立法较为成熟的国家、地区相比,仍然存在不便操作、难以有效惩处个别类型犯罪、进一步完善立法技术等方面问题。鉴于此,在分析贿赂犯罪发展的基础上必须进一步完善贿赂犯罪的立法,更有力地惩治此类行为,从而有效地遏制、预防此类犯罪的发生。
Since 30 years of reform and opening up, China will have been the crime of bribery as one of the key blow content, also obtained apparent effect. Although countries continue to increase the punishment of bribery crime, but with some anti-corruption criminal legislation is more mature countries, compared to the region, there is still inconvenient operation, difficult to effectively punish individual types of crime, further consummates the legislation technology. In view of this, based on the analysis on the development of bribery crime must further improve the bribery crime legislation, more effectively punish such acts, and effectively curb this kind of crime, prevention.

(一)适当扩大贿赂定义范围
(a) appropriate to expand the scope of the definition of bribery

基于中国本土的国情特点,将贿赂范围的定义由财物扩展至满足受贿人一切有形与无形的不正当“财产性利益”。因为在中国这样注重人情世故以及礼尚往来的国度,如果将贿赂定义扩大到非财产性利益则会模糊行贿与受贿双方的关系,这样也无从体现权钱交易的本质特征。将贿赂的范围扩大至“财产性利益”,可便于司法操作,且不致放纵犯罪。
National characteristics based on China native, will define the scope of bribery by the property extended to meet bribee all tangible and intangible unfair "property interests". Because in the Chinese such emphasis on traditional code of conduct and the reciprocity of the country, if the bribe to extend the definition to the non property interests will be fuzzy relation bribery and bribery of both sides, so also do not reflect the essential characteristics of trading power for money. Will the bribery range expanded to "property interest", can be convenient for the judicial operation, and not to indulge crime.

(二)调整贿赂犯罪设置要件
(two) to adjust the setting elements of bribery crime

一方面取消被动型受贿罪中“为他人谋取利益”饱受争议的要件设置。建议在刑法的第三百八十五条中增设一款规定,“若明知他人有具体请托事项而收受其财物、财产性利益的,则视为为他人谋取利益”,通过这样界定来确保对国家工作人员承诺为请托人谋利益但没有付诸实施或者是收受财物后不为请托人谋取利益的行为进行惩治。另一方面,二是取消行贿罪“为谋取不正当利益”要件中“不正当”的限制。建议适时取消行贿罪谋取不正当利益要件中“不正当”的限制,考虑可以将不正当利益改为个人利益,以实现对行贿、受贿行为处理时的相对均衡。
A cancellation of passive bribery "to seek benefits for others" controversial elements set. Proposed a stipulated in the criminal law in 385th, "if knowing that others have specific please and accept money or property, the property benefit, as to seek benefits for others", by this definition to ensure commitment to national staff as trustees interests but not implemented or accepting property after as trustees to seek interests for the punishment of behavior. On the other hand, two is to cancel the bribery "to seek illegitimate interests for elements" in "unfair" limit. Suggest timely cancel the crime of offering bribes to seek illegitimate interests elements in "unfair" restrictions, can be considered to be illegitimate interests into a personal interests, in order to achieve the bribery behavior treatment relative equilibrium.


(three) additional foreign personnel bribery provisions

我国刑法中并没有规定向外国公职人员和国际公共组织官员行贿及受贿两个犯罪。对于行贿与受贿规定需区别对待,对于涉外人员行贿规定的增设,即有利于规范我国公民、法人与其它组织的国际商业活动行为,又维护了我国商业整体声誉。可以对外国公职、国际组织官员相关受贿行为暂不作规定,建议增设外国公职、国际组织官员受贿罪在实践中涉及到管辖权尤其是相关人员所享有的外交特权与豁免权等复杂的法律问题。
In the criminal law of our country and no provision of foreign public officials and officials of public international organizations offering and accepting bribes two crime. For bribery and bribery provisions need to be treated differently, for additional foreign personnel bribery provisions, which is conducive to international business activities, behavior norms of our citizens and legal persons and other organizations, and maintain the overall reputation of business in china. Can be related to bribery of foreign public, officials of international organizations will not make provisions, proposed foreign public, officials of international organizations involved in the bribery crime in the practice of jurisdiction in particular legal issues related personnel enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities and other complex.

(四)补充影响力交易犯罪
(four) added the influential transaction crime

交易罪中的“影响力”包括两种类型:第一种是因一定的职务关系在公职人员本身上所体现的影响力;第二种则是与公职人员有直接或间接关系的其它影响力,关系如亲戚、朋友等。“影响力”不等同于“职务便利”或“公务”。建议在表述具体条文及相关结构安排上,可以考虑予以补充区别非国家工作人员影响力受贿和行贿两种情形并分别作为《刑法》第三百八十八条、第三百八十九条的第二款。
In the crime of trading "influence" includes two types: the first kind is due to a certain position in the public service personnel relationship itself embodied the influence; the second kind is other influence has direct or indirect relation with public officials, such as the relation between relatives, friends etc.. "Influence" is not equal to "the job convenience" or "public service". Recommendations in the arrangement of specific provisions and related structure of expression, can be non national staff bribery, influence of two kinds of situations and is used as the "criminal law" article 388th, paragraph 389th of the second considered complementary distinction.

(five) the classification reference amount standard of conviction

我国刑法中对于受贿罪的法定刑是援引贪污罪的法定刑,从立法上看,调整定罪量刑单纯参照贪污罪犯罪数额标准的这种做法,应确立数额与情节的二元分列标准。受贿罪侦查难度比贪污罪要高得多,其危害除了表现出对国家工作人员廉洁性侵害,而且社会危害性更为严重。另外,过于准确的数额限定标准导致刑罚空间过于僵硬的问题,尤其涉及到无法以金钱计量的非物质性利益时,建议可通过考察除数额外的追求的不正当利益等其他情节,来综合平衡确定是否构成犯罪,从而选择量刑。


Legal penalty for bribery in criminal law in our country is quoted of corruption crime legal punishment, from the point of legislation, the adjustment of the conviction and sentencing of simple according to the crime of corruption crime amount standard of this practice, we should establish the amount and plot two yuan in the standard. Bribery crime investigation is more difficult than the crime of corruption is much higher, its harm in addition to show on the national staff integrity violations, and social harmfulness is more serious. In addition, too accurate amount limit standard lead sentence space is too stiff problems, in particular to not to money measurement of non-material interests, suggested by examining the divisor extra pursuing illegitimate interests and other circumstances, to determine whether the comprehensive balance of crimes, so as to choose the sentencing.

(六)建立科学合理刑罚机制
(six) establish a scientific and reasonable punishment mechanism

一方面,我国的贿赂犯罪刑罚体系表现出世界上少数几个国家设置有死刑的重刑主义的倾向。笔者认为,要对腐败现象进行遏制,主要核心点不在于案件发生后的严格处治,而是要被惩处的风险与代价的大小以及之前相关制度控制。建议适当考虑严格限制贿赂犯罪死刑适用条件,等到条件成熟再对死刑设置进行全面取消。另一方面,在我国贿赂犯罪其他附加刑的措施比较单一,力度也相对较弱。刑法相关罚金型一般只规定了单位贿赂犯罪而不适用于自然人犯罪。自然人犯罪仅规定没收财产型,且只在情节严重才可予以适用。建议进一步加大贿赂犯罪中财产刑的适用力度,增设个人贿赂犯罪的罚金刑,规定所有贿赂犯罪均应适用财产刑。
On the one hand, the punishment of bribery crime system in China tend to show the world a few countries provided with the death penalty misdemeanours. The author thinks, to the containment of corruption phenomenon, the main core is not strict treatment after the incident, the risk and cost but to be punished as well as the size of the control before the relevant system. To recommend appropriate consideration to strictly limit the applicable conditions of bribery crime death penalty, until the conditions are ripe and then on the death penalty setting full cancellation. On the other hand, in the bribery crime in China additional punishment measures is relatively single, strength is relatively weak. Criminal law related fine type generally only stipulated the unit crime of bribery and is not applicable to the natural person crime. The crime of natural person only provides for confiscation of property, and only in serious cases can be applied. Suitable dynamics suggest further increase the punishment of bribery crime in the criminal fine, adding personal bribery, bribery provisions shall apply to the property punishment.

随着我国改革开放的逐步深化以及民主政治的不断发展,需要从我国的基本国情出发,多方位、全视角、多维度地检视我国的贿赂犯罪立法,同时也要不断学习国外经验,取其精华,从而进一步规范与完善我国贿赂犯罪的刑事立法。
With China's reform and opening up and the gradual deepening of the continuous development of democratic politics, from the perspective of China's basic national conditions, multi-faceted, full view and multi dimension view of legislation of bribery crime in China, also want to continue to learn foreign experience, and take its essence, to further standardize and improve the bribery crime in China the criminal legislation.

上一篇:我国知识产权秩序 下一篇:背景音乐收费对利益平衡

相关阅读

发表文章

最新评论

更多评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
友情提示: 登录后发表评论,可以直接从评论中的用户名进入您的个人空间,让更多网友认识您。